The Theory & Practice of Rational Emotive
Behaviour Therapy (REBT)
Extracted from Dr Jim Byrne's book - A Wounded Psychotherapist
- Copyright (c) Jim Byrne, 2013.
people that they upset themselves. We can't change the past, so we change how people are thinking, feeling and behaving today".
In principle, Ellis’s philosophy is a very simple one; and a very powerful one. (And it is not immediately
obvious that it contains a number of errors and problems). The principal postulates are as follows:
1. People are born with innate tendencies towards rationality and irrationality (and they also pick them up from
Demanding that we absolutely must get what we want, when we want it, right now, immediately!
(b) Catastrophizing (or ‘awfulizing’) about it when we don’t get our demands met.
(c) Telling ourselves we ‘cannot stand’ life’s frustrations and difficulties, losses and failures,
(d) Condemning and damning ourselves, other people and/or the world when things go wrong
in our lives.
4. To implement this understanding in therapy sessions, Dr Ellis developed the A-B-C (D-E)
model of human disturbance, which works like this:
A = What happened (in your [the client’s]
life; or in your memory/recall; or in your anticipations; to cause you to feel some emotional distress? (Whatever ‘it’
was, it is called ‘the A’, or the ‘Activating event’ or ‘stimulus’)
B = Your beliefs about ‘A’. (What did you tell yourself [or signal yourself] about the event, or
recollection, or anticipation?)
C = What was the Consequent emotion (and behaviour)? (The assumption
is that the ‘C’, or consequent emotion, is caused by ‘the A’ multiplied by the intensity
of ‘the B’: [Or A x B = C, for short]).
D = Detecting, defining and debating/disputing
the ‘irrational beliefs’ that caused your disturbed emotion (at ‘point C’). This disputing process
will eliminate your distressed emotion, and replace it with a ‘reasonable upset’ (such as irritation instead of
anger; concern instead of anxiety; and sadness instead of depression). The ‘reasonable upsets’ (of irritation,
concern and sadness) are much less distressing and painful than the ‘overly upset emotions’ of anger, anxiety
E = Effective new philosophy. This involves replacing your irrational beliefs with
rational beliefs (constituting an Effective new philosophy). This Effective new philosophy contains such elements as:
preferring some outcome instead of demanding it; rating your noxious situations realistically (as in ‘30% bad’
instead of ‘100% bad’); recognizing that you can stand any difficulty, right up to, but not including,
your own death – and you won’t need to handle your own death, as you will not be present when it arrives!
And: Giving up condemning and damning your-self, other people and the world, and substituting Accept-ance of self,
others and the world.
And in this format, it seems to me that REBT is all strengths, with few obvious weaknesses. I have used it
extensively, on myself, and with numerous counselling clients, over many years, with great results.
over time, I was to discover some concealed weaknesses which are not immediately obvious. (For example, the
theory does not really talk about ‘acceptance’, but rather ‘unconditional acceptance’
– which means that “even Adolf Hitler was not a bad person!”,[i] according to Ellis. That is an unrealistic stance to take in a society, because in a society (as opposed to living up in
the clouds!) it is necessary to have legal systems and moral codes to guide human behaviour and to manage deviations which
potentially harm others. [See Byrne 2010b, in the list of References, below; plus Appendix G at the back of this book]).
I discovered the weaknesses of REBT quite by accident; and I began to deviate from the official model as a result.
In fact, my deviations from Dr Ellis’s philosophy had begun in 2001, when I began to review a critique of REBT, by Frank
Bond and Windy Dryden, from 1996. (See my CENT Paper No.1(a), [Byrne 2009c])[ii]. Those authors had raised concerns about the core of REBT theory being essentially untestable. I waded in to
defend REBT; went back to basics to clarify the core model – the ABC model – and in the process I raised more
questions than I answered.
[i] Albert Ellis’s reasoning here is this: He defines a ‘bad person’
as somebody who “always and only does bad things”. But this is his own esoteric definition. In more
mainstream moral philosophy debates, the lines of demarcation fall between those who think that situational factors are more
important than dispositional factors in turning a good person bad. But there is no tendency in those debates to deny
the existence of good and evil, or to recognize that a pattern of bad behaviour indicates the existence of a bad character
(whether that badness results more from situational factors than dispositional factors, or vice versa). And bad character
is normally flagged up by saying the person displaying it is themselves a bad person. (Zimbardo, 2009). Of course,
a bad person (a person of bad character) can reform their character and become a good person. Not immediately; not effortlessly;
but definitely they can do it. Your character is indicated by “Who you are and what you do when no one is looking”: (Source: http://www.characterunlimited.com/ character_ethics.htm). If you are seen as a bad person, that is your personal
reputation; it is not just the reputation of your behaviours. Because our reputations affect our outcomes in life, we each
have to pay attention to our reputations, and to aim to earn a reputation as a good person.
For an illustration of good
and bad people in action, think about the Sheriff of Nottingham and Robin Hood. Robin Hood is universally loved as a
good man, while the Sheriff of Nottingham is reviled as an evil man. The people of Nottingham would have burned Albert
Ellis at the stake if he’d turned up and told them: “Look! The Sheriff cannot be a bad man, because a bad
man would always and only do bad things; and the Sheriff loves Maid Marion and his hunting dogs, which proves he can’t
be bad”. Who cares who or what the Sheriff loves? He has a consistent pattern of behaviour which indicates
bad character, especially cruelty, and he pursues oppressive and exploitative policies (at least in the fictional world of
Nottingham Forest!). He is a bad man in practice, and should be related to as a bad man, who needs to be opposed. (Marinoff,
2004). "Character is not reflected by what we say, or even by what we intend, it is a reflection of what we do."
- Anonymous. So we are our current character; and we are what we do. (If we prove to be ineffective or inefficient,
that is no big deal – we can excuse ourselves for that, because inefficiency and ineffectiveness are not MORAL issues!
Moral issues concern the possibility of causing harm to others). See Appendix G for further elaboration).
[ii] Byrne, J. (2009c) Rethinking the psychological models underpinning
Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT). Cent Paper No.1(a). Hebden Bridge: The Institute for CENT. Available
If you want to understand the strengths and limitations of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) then the best
place to start is by reading my book which explores the childhood of Albert Ellis; how his chronic parental neglect negatively
impacted his attachment style; how he became insecurely attached and significantly amoral; and how those negative developments
led on to the weaknesses of REBT theory and practice:
‘A Wounded psychotherapist’
is a thoroughly researched and tightly argued book by Dr Jim Byrne. It is an analysis of both the childhood of Dr Albert
Ellis (the creator of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy [REBT]), and how some of those childhood experiences most likely
gave rise to certain features of his later philosophy of psychotherapy.
you have ever wondered what the roots of REBT might have been, and how valid they are, then this is the book for you.
it explores the childhood difficulties of Albert Ellis, and links those difficulties forward to the ways in which REBT was
Articles and papers on the theory and practice of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT)
Here is a selection of the articles and papers in which I explored and investigated the strengths and weaknesses
of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy, over a period of years:
Byrne, J. (2009) Rethinking the psychological models underpinning Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy
(REBT). Cent Paper No.1(a). HebdenBridge:
The Institute for CENT.Brief
extract: Cognitive Emotive Narrative Therapy (CENT) arose out of Dr Byrne's attempts to reconcile Rational Emotive
Behaviour Therapy (REBT) and certain other elements of therapy systems that he found useful: commencing with Transactional
Analysis (TA), Zen philosophy, and later, attachment theory. It was also shaped by his discovery of some limitations
of certain aspects of REBT theory. However, much of the foundations of REBT still serve as important elements of CENT. Pages: 24. Available online: Complex ABC Model of REBT***
Byrne, J. (2009) Beyond REBT: The case for moving on. CENT Paper No.1(b). HebdenBridge: The Institute for CENT. Brief extract: For a good number of years, Dr Byrne failed
to notice that REBT was strongly (if unintentionally) advocating that people ignore social norms regarding moral judgement.
For example, Dr Ellis's repeated references to the claim that "Hitler was not a bad man!" And "Why must
life be fair?" These seemed to be 'harmless therapeutic tools', but the time would come when they would be applied
socially as guides to action or non-action. The author was finally awoken to this danger by widely circulating reports
of the way in which Dr Ellis was treated in the final years of his life by some of his former colleagues; and by counter claims
of imoral behaviour by Dr Ellis. Pages: 10. Available online: Beyond REBT: The birth of CENT***
Byrne, J. (2011) Additional limitations of the ABCs of REBT.CENT Paper
No.1(c). HebdenBridge: The Institute for CENT. Brief
extract: CENT has problems with the simple A>B>C model of REBT, and we have evolved a more complex
model of the ABCs, which are in line with Dr Albert Ellis’s more complex thinking from 1958-1962. The simple A>B>C
model is useful and helpful, if used cautiously. It isan oversimplification of what
happens in human functioning. It asserts that (1) something happens (at point A); then (2) the individual adopts
a belief about it (at point B); and finally (3) this results in an emotional and behavioural response (at point C). Actually,
human functioning is much more complex than this. Pages: 15. Available online: Further problems with the ABCs of REBT***
Byrne, J. (2011) On the Conceptual Errors of Bond
and Dryden (1996): or how to scientifically validate the central hypotheses of REBT. CENT Paper No.1(d). Heben
Bridge: The Institute for CENT. Brief extract: This paper was origianlly written
as ABC Occasional Paper No.7, and published six years before the first CENT paper above, in August 2003. This document was designed as the first of several inquiries into
the nature and veracity of Bond and Dryden's (1996) critique of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT). (See also CENT
Paper No.1(a) above). The author was convinced that REBT could be effectively defended against these criticisms, and
that the work of Dr Albert Ellis could be shown to be beyond reproach. In practice, this document identified some conceptual
errors on the part of Drs Bond and Dryden, but also some ambiguous formulations of his ideas by Dr Albert Ellis. Pages:
90. Available online: Conceptual errors of Bond and Dryden (1996)***
Byrne, J. (2010) Fairness, Justice and
Morality Issues in REBT and CENT. CENT Paper No.2(b). HebdenBridge: The Institute for CENT. Brief extract: A CENT therapist cannot ignore problems of social
injustice. It would be immoral for a therapist to always assume their clients are wrong in claiming that they are
being treated unfairly. It could also have a detrimental effect on the wellbeing of an individual to have their
just claim for fairness dismissed out of hand by their counsellor or therapist. And in discounting claims of unfairness
by a client, the therapist runs the risk of road-blocking their communication. Pages: 41. Available online: Fairness, Justice and Morality in REBT and CENT***
Byrne, J. (2010) Self-acceptance and other-acceptance in relation to competence and morality. CENT
Paper No.2(c). Hebden Bridge: The Institute for CENT. Brief extract: Dr Byrne's stance on acceptance
is this: "I do not accept you (or anybody else) unconditionally. There is no law of the universe
that says I must do so! And there may be a virtual law of the universethat says I must respond (relatively)
vengefully whenever anybody treats me unfairly, according to Haidt (2006). Instead of offering individuals Unconditional
Acceptance, CENT therapists offer One-Conditional Acceptance: 'I will accept you totally without reserve, no matter how incompetently
or inefficiently you act or think, so long as your are committed to living a moral life.
That is an absolute condition of our relationship." Pages: 44. Available online: One-conditional self acceptance***
Byrne, J. (2011) Some clarifications of the parting of the ways: An open letter to Dr
Albert Ellis, on the fourth anniversary of his death. CENT Paper No.12. HebdenBridge: The Institute
for CENT.. Brief extract: This
paper is written in the form of an open letter to Dr Albert Ellis, and this is how I defined my goals for the writing of this
document: (1) to honour
your value as a human being, and as a great psychotherapist, who helped me, and perhaps tens of thousands of others, to get
over their emotional disturbances - through your therapy sessions, books, videos, audio programs, public lectures, and (in
my case) personal letters and emails; and: (2) to clarify some of the ways in which I have moved on from REBT into the somewhat
overlapping territory of CENT.Pages: 18. Available online: An open letter to Albert Ellis about REBT and CENT theories***
Byrne, J. (2012) Reviewing
some strengths and weaknesses of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) - and outlining some innovations.CENT
Paper No.22. Hebden Bridge: The Institute for CENT. The author explores his association with Rational
Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT); outlines some of its strengths; summarizes the main weaknesses and deficiencies in REBT;
and looks at the role of Goals in human disturbance. He also explores the concept of 'human emotional needs', which
is not considered valid in REBT; explores some refinements of the A>B>C model; illustrates aspects of the complex A>B>C
model; and critiques the typical structure of an REBT session. He then advocates restoring the Stimulus>Organism>Response
model to replace the A>B>C model; outlines the CENT session structure; and contrasts the process of 'disputing irrational
beliefs' with the gentler, less conflictual process of 're-framing the problem', which is used in Cognitive Emotive Narrative
Therapy (CENT). Available online: Reviewing some strengths and weaknesses of REBT.***
Byrne, J. (2012) My final farewell to Dr Albert Ellis: An open letter.
CENT Paper No.23. Hebden Bridge: The Institute for CENT. Just as on previous anniversaries of the death of Dr
Albert Ellis, I feel the need to communicate with that part of Al which is still stuck in my mind. I am striving to
achieve completion with that part of him, and I believe I have finally achieved it with this open letter. Just as on
previous anniversaries of the death of Dr Albert Ellis, I feel the need to communicate with that part of Al which is still
stuck in my mind. I am striving to achieve completion with that part of him, and I believe I have finally achieved it
with this open letter. Available online: Final Farewell to Albert Ellis...***
‘A Wounded psychotherapist’ is a thoroughly researched and tightly argued book by
Dr Jim Byrne. It is an analysis of both the childhood of Dr Albert Ellis (the creator of Rational Emotive Behaviour
Therapy [REBT]), and how some of those childhood experiences most likely gave rise to certain features of his later philosophy
If you have ever wondered what the roots of REBT might have been, and how valid they are, then
this is the book for you. it explores the childhood difficulties of Albert Ellis, and links those difficulties forward
to the ways in which REBT was eventually shaped.
this site you will find lots of informational resources (mainly requiring an access fee) about coaching, counselling
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Therapy (REBT), Transactional Analysis (TA), Narrative therapy, Attachment theory, Zen Buddhist philosophy, Stoic philosophy,
Moral philosophy, and several other systems.