What is Counselling, and how is it practiced? A Continuing Professional Development (CPD) program

The I-CENT CPD Certificate in Counselling Skills


This is a new certificate program which has the following features: It is based on high quality resources; it is very competitively priced; you can stage your payments over three instalments; and it is very flexible in that you can study it in your own way for your own reasons, and at your own pace.  You have a choice of resources to choose from.  And you can submit your assignment when you are ready to do so.

When you pay the initial access fee of just £3.45p GBP (plus taxes), you gain access to Resource 1 - What is counselling and how is it done?; and Resource 4 - Sixteen videos on counselling: exploring a range of counselling models.

When you have had time to review both of those resource packs, you can decide which elements of this material to study.  At that point you would enrol for the certificate, paying a fee of just £9.75p GBP, in response to which you will receive the Study Guide and Assignment Sheet.

Once you have worked through the Study Guide and Assignment Sheet, and you have written your assignment, you should submit your assignment: at which point you would pay your Assessment and Certification fee of just £19.75 GBP. 


A good counsellor is a lifelong learner: "Studying theories of counselling and therapy is both an intellectual undertaking and a personal journey.  All people develop a set of ideas, albeit not fully articulated, about how people become the way they are, how they stay the way they are - often at a great personal cost - and how they can change.  As a counselling and therapy student you are challenged to develop a more thorough and accurate theory of human behaviour so that you can help clients more.  However, when reviewing these theoretical approaches you will find yourself applying the concepts to yourself and testing whether they have validity for helping you to become happier and more fulfilled.  Thus, the fruits of your studying counselling and therapy approaches will become manifest in how you influence both clients' biographies and your own autobiography". 

Richard Nelson-Jones, Theory and Practice of Counselling and Therapy, 2001. (2)



What follows is a brief introduction to Resource 1:


Resource 1 - What is counselling, and how is it done? 

by Dr Jim Byrne

Updated: 13th November, 2013


DrJim_in-Scarboro_2010c.jpgHello and welcome to this introduction to Learning Resource 1 - What is counselling, and how is it done?

If you want to study for the I-CENT CPD Certificate in Counselling Skills, then this is one of the resource packs which is available to you. 

On the other hand, if you are just about to begin a course in counselling, then this resource page could help you, by offering you what is called an 'advance organizer' of the subject.  An advance organizer is a kind of 'map of the territory' to be studied.  If you were to go into a jungle without having first seen a map, drawn from an ariel view, it would be very easy for you to get lost.  With an advance organizer, or map of the territory, already in your mind, you can more easily find your way around. 

If you are already some way into your counselling studies, you could find this resource page to be an aid to your creative thinking about the nature of counselling and therapy, because it presents you with a number of different models of counselling and therapy, which, when considered side by side, almost always give rise to some new ideas about how counselling could be done differently. 

For several years, this resource page has been one of the most popular pages on this website.  Originally designed to answer some simple questions about the definition of counselling, it grew and grew into something which was very supportive for counselling students, in gaining an understanding of their field of study.  It has also been used by existing professional counsellors who wanted to add some new dimensions to their practice; or to get some creative ideas to work with.

We hope you will decide to study for the I-CENT CPD Certificate in Counselling Skills.


The benefits of studying this counselling resource:

If you decide to study this resource page, this is what you will gain:

1. A very good overview of the subject: 'What is counselling?'

2. Some very interesting definitions of 'counselling'.

3. A good understanding of the origins and roots of counselling and therapy.

4. An inside view of what happens in counselling.

5. Insights into the person-centred, the psychodynamic and the cognitive-behavioural approaches to counselling (including video presentations).

6a. And if you decide to complete the I-CENT CPD Certificate in Counselling Skills, you will gain a handsome certificate which testifies to the fact that you have completed at least 30 hours of study of a range of counselling models and skills.  You can even choose your own area of interest, and have that area of interest highlighted in your CPD certificate!

Here is a sample video clip:



6b. Insights into client experiences of counselling.

7. Overview of the cognitive-emotive approach to counselling; and the resolution of anger.

8. Introduction to accreditation, ethics and personal safety in counselling.

9. An insight into the listening skills used in counselling and therapy.

10. Some ideas about Transactional Analysis, Existential counselling and Impact Therapy.

11. Research on the equivalence of outcomes from different forms of counselling.

12. A contrasting of the non-directive and the active approaches to counselling and therapy.

13. Some ideas about attachment theory in counselling and therapy.  And:

14. A good understanding of empathy; what it is; why it's important in counselling and therapy; your own empathy level, and how to improve it.

In particular, you will get this information boiled down into easy-to-digest packages!  And you can choose which packages to study!





This is how the page begins:

In simple terms, counselling involves one person (the counsellor) helping another person (the client) to work through some difficult or painful emotional, behavioural or relationship problem or difficulty.  That is the form of individual counselling. 

In practice there are probably almost as many definitions and descriptions of the process called ‘counselling' as there are theorists who have written on this subject.  At one stage, the number of systems of counselling and therapy was said to be more than 400.  So narrowing down our definition to manageable proportions is going to be our major challenge.

My dictionary of psychology defines counselling like this:

"The practice or profession of applying psychological theories and communication skills to clients' personal problems, concerns or aspirations". Andrew Colman (2002) Oxford Dictionary of Psychology.


On this page I will present descriptions and video elaborations from the three main schools of thought: the cognitive-behavioural, the psychodynamic and the humanistic.

...End of extract.



About this page

The page that is offered below - entitled Resource 1: What is Counselling, and how is it done? - is a very popular and highly valued learning resource.  It consists of a 6,000 word description of many of the essential components of counselling theory and practice, across a range of schools of thought (including the CBT, person centred, and the psychodynamic approaches); supported by 12 video clips illustrating aspects of counselling.  There are also links to recommended books and papers/articles, and some completed academic assignments on counselling and therapy theories and practices. And I have already added three 'bonus features' which are described in postscripts below.


How to access this resource...

To begin reading this valuable resource, you will need to pay the Access Fee, which is required to ensure the upkeep of this web page.  (The fee is for access to a resource which was written or compiled by Jim Byrne and/or Renata Taylor-Byrne.  That resource may also contain some elements - such as video clips - some of which are already in the public domain).

The access fee has been set very low, at just £4.75 £3.45 GBP for a minimum of 90 days of continuous access (subject to normal functioning of web servers and internet technology).

In addition to Resource 1, you will also gain access to various bonus features, and also to Resource 4 Sixteen videos on counselling); and you will also find out about the option to upgrade to the I-CENT CPD Certificate in Counselling Skills.

To gain access to this resource:

1. You need to click the yellow-highlighted link below, which will take you to ClickBank (a secure server which we have used for thousands of transactions over a twelve year period without a single problem).

2. You can pay with your credit/debit card, or with your PayPal account.

I hope you find this very popular and highly valued resource helpful.

Pay Now: To purchase access to this resource (including the *Bonus Features* listed on this page), please click this link now: Resource 1 - What is Counselling, and how is it done?***





Today, 11th October 2013, I have added Bonus feature No.3:

Q&A Mini-paper No.C101

An Introduction to Counselling

by Jim Byrne, Doctor of Counselling, University of Manchester

8th October 2013      


This mini-paper includes a reflective review of Chapter 1 of a specific book on counselling, which is commonly used in counsellor training.  Here are the book's details:

McLeod, John (2003) An Introduction to Counselling.  Third Edition.  Buckingham: Open University Press. Pages 1-19.


IntroCounsMcLeod.jpgDr McLeod's seventeen page introduction is, in my opinion, slightly too long and detailed to be optimally useful for getting a quick overview of the answer to the question: What is counselling?

I have therefore boiled it down to four pages in an effort to distil the essence of Dr McLeod's message.  I began by taking notes and then thinking through the various elements of his presentation, to arrive at an optimal structure for my presentation of his insights and conclusions. 

Next, I wrote a four page summary of his chapter; and then boiled that summary down to the following one-paragraph summary.

(I also answered some of the post text questions and sub-questions, and I have appended them at the end of this mini-paper).

Brief summary

Counselling is a process which begins when a person (the client) approaches a professionally trained person (the counsellor) for help with a problem of everyday living.  The counsellor actively listens and works collaboratively with the client to help the client to arrive at a satisfactory resolution of their problem.  That covers the person centred approach.  To adequately cover the two other major schools of thought in counselling, we must also add: A psychodynamic counsellor will look for the roots of the client's problems in their early childhood experiences (as well as how the handle their current thinking, feeling and behaviour) - and help them to digest previously undigested experiences.  On the other hand, a cognitive-behavioural counsellor will look for the roots of the client's problem in their current approach to thinking and behaving in response to their environment - and encourage them to change their system of beliefs about troublesome aspects of their environment.

Extended (four-page) summary

John-McLeod5.jpgDr McLeod suggests that it is the needs and goals of an individual which constitute the focus of counselling help.  He suggests that counselling emerged as a product of Western culture in the twentieth century, related to the needs of individuals in large, impersonal organizations.  He goes on to say that, since then, counselling and psychotherapy have largely taken over the roles of the priest and the community based agony aunts of an earlier era.  Counselling thus acts as a way of being known, and of gaining succour in times of personal and especially emotional crisis.

The most fundamental feature of counselling, according to Dr McLeod, is that "...it can only happen if the person seeking help, the client, wants it to happen".  (Page 15).

...End of extract.


To continue reading this bonus feature, please...

Pay Now: To purchase access to this resource (including the *Bonus Features* listed on this page), please go to: Resource 1 - What is Counselling, and how is it done?***



Reflective Mini-paper C201

Understanding and improving empathy in counselling and psychotherapy training and learning

by Dr Jim Byrne

14th October 2013

1. Introduction

Empathy-zero-degrees-Baron-Cohen.jpgIn this eleven-page paper I examine some definitions of empathy, and relate them to the concepts of: good and bad; selfishness and pro-social tendencies; emotional intelligence (including an emotional intelligence test); Counsellor training, self therapy and personal development; Interpersonal communication and reading body language; Sympathy, empathy and compassion (including an empathy quotient test); and finally: How to become more empathic.

2. What is empathy?

Empathy is one of the three core conditions which were promoted in the world of counselling by Dr Carl Rogers, the creator of person-centred counselling.  The other two were genuineness and non-possessive caring (or what he called Unconditional Positive Regard [UPR]).  (See Chapter 15 of Robert Bolton's (1979) book: People Skills)[i].

Bolton (1979) gives a graphic example of empathy:

"Two centuries ago, John Woolman walked barefoot from Baltimore to Philadelphia.  He did it to receive in his own body, some measure of the pain that black slaves suffered when they were forced to walk barefoot over long distances.  By putting himself in the slave's place, he better understood what slavery meant to the slave.  He had empathy". (Page 269).

According to my dictionary of psychology[ii], empathy means: "The capacity to understand and enter into another person's feelings and emotions or to experience something from the other person's point of view...".

I was particularly intrigued by Professor Simon Baron-Cohen's definition (which follows):


...End of extract.

To continue reading this bonus feature, you must pay the 'access fee' - of £4.75 £3.45 GBP - for the 'What is Counselling?' page. 

To pay your fee...please go to: Resource 1 - What is Counselling, and how is it done?***


[i] Bolton, R. (1979) People Skills: How to assert yourself, listen to others and resolve conflicts.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

[ii] Colman, A.M. (2002) A Dictionary of Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.



*Bonus feature*: Today (16th September 2013) I have added my first 'bonus' feature.  Empathy is probably the most important personal trait of the effective counsellor.  It is not easy to know how to teach or learn empathy.  My own experience has been that, in order to grow in empathy, it is important to explore childhood experiences - our own and those of others - and to get in touch with what it feels like to be a powerless child in a difficult world.  Every counselling client contains a damaged child ego state, to some degree or other, and it is important that we feel for that part of the client.  Therefore, my first bonus feature on this page has to be the 26 pages of Chapter 2 of my book, A Wounded Psychotherapist: Albert Ellis's Childhood and the strengths and limitations of REBT/CBT.  That chapter is about Little Albert's first day at school.

Here's a two-page extract from Chapter 2 to give you a flavour of this work:

Chapter 2: Little Albert's first day at school

"Do ye hear the children weeping,

Oh my brothers . . .?" 

Elizabeth Barrett Browning

(This material is copyright (c) Jim Byrne, 2013)

The first major event of Albert Ellis's life, which is reported in his autobiography, was starting school.  The subject is introduced in the opening sentence of Chapter 1A, in a very odd way:

"The first sensible thing I can remember doing that helped me enjoy life and ward off potential misery happened when I started kindergarten at the age of four, in Pittsburgh". (Page 23)

This is a particularly odd statement because his starting school was neither a ‘sensible' nor a ‘senseless' thing to do, because he, in fact, did not DO IT!  It was done to him.  But he seems to be so much in the habit of taking responsibility, and trying to frame everything positively, that he cannot even notice that he was processed, and he was not the processor!

This is how he describes it:

"Anyway, one bright day my mother quietly told me that she was taking me to school, which, with no discussion, she promptly did.  She walked me up a long hill to a large building about a block away from the small apartment house in which we lived, introduced me to the reasonably nice blond kindergarten teacher, and coolly left me in her tender clutches, saying that she would return at noon to take me home.  The reasonably nice blond lady, in her turn, quickly introduced me to a motley group of youngsters, all of whom seemed to be (and probably were) a little older than I, irregularly sprawled around the large school room.  They were acutely aloof, since they had already started their day's activities, and at first I was bewildered and didn't quite know what to do with myself.  ‘A strange bunch!' I thought, seeing them so active, into themselves, and not at all inclined to stop their personal activities and welcome me".  (Page 23).

I'm not sure the teacher would have ‘introduced him' to the class - in 1917!  But be that as it may.

The statement that "they were acutely aloof", is not the observation of an intensely shy four-year old (who would, him-self, have been acutely aloof, and determined to stay that way!).  This is actually 92-year old Al, standing in the classroom, trying to think what to say about it - and not trying to get in touch with any of the feelings of ‘little Albert'!  ("To hell with the feelings", I can hear him aver!)

"I was bewildered and didn't quite know what to do with myself", again is an adult consideration; and not a child's thinking/feeling state.  And where in this statement can we find the famously anxious Albert Ellis, who spent years learning how to overcome his anxiety?  This is not the voice of Little Albert!

"... ‘A strange bunch!' I thought, seeing them so active...".  This is an adult observation; and not the voice of Little (anxious and shy) Albert!  What Older Al is doing here is engaging in a ‘dismissing' mental attitude, which Mary Main discovered is the normal response of anxious-avoidant children, when (years later) they come to complete the Adult Attachment Inventory question-naire.  They dismiss the idea that childhood could have been difficult for them.  Like Ellis, they have no interest in their early childhood, and they often insist that they lack any recall of their childhood.  (See David Wallin, 2007, pages 88-89).

Al continues this dismissing narrative:

"The teacher, too.  ‘Quite a character!' I said to myself.  For, after greeting me for less than a minute, she also flew into her own thing..." (Page 24).

I think what is happening here is that 92-year-old Al is projecting backwards, to Little Albert, his own dismissing attitude towards attachment needs (or the need for love and security), and discounting the very likely separation anxiety that Little Albert was actually feeling in that very strange new situation.  (I would recommend that serious readers of this book read Dr David Wallin's book on Attachment in Psychotherapy,[i] or at least some of its key points from my web page on Attachment Theory, which can be found on my web site, at http://www.abc-counselling.com/id292.html.


[i] Wallin, D.A. (2007) Attachment in Psychotherapy.  New York: Guildford Press.


...End of Extract: To continue reading this bonus feature, you must pay the 'access fee' - of £4.75 £3.45 GBP - for the 'What is Counselling?' page. 

To pay your fee...please go to: Resource 1 - What is Counselling, and how is it done?***


*Bonus feature 2*:  Today (18th September), I have added a new bonus feature to Learning Resource 1.  Like the previous one, this is designed to promote empathy for early childhood suffering, which colours much of what goes on in many counselling and therapy sessions.  Here are the details: Chapter 1 of Daniel O'Beeve's memoir of growing up in Ireland.  The book is titled: Kulchie Kid: Growing up in a crazy culture.  The chapter is titled, A Very Poor Beginning.  The entire bonus feature comes to 8,250 words, of which 4,000 are Dr Byrne's analytical comments upon Daniel's text.  Dr Byrne discusses: (1) The therapeutic justification for the writing of Daniel's memoir (in terms of the healing power of writing therapy); (2) What experimental psychology has to teach us about Daniel's early childhood; (3) Attachment theory and Daniel's early years; and: (4) What CENT theory has to say about Daniel's childhood.

Here is a two-page extract from Chapter 1 of Daniel's memoir of his childhood:

Chapter 1: In the beginning was the missing word...

My earliest memories of my life are visual.  Accompanying the visual images are gut feelings: dread, sadness, fear, aversion.  But big, frightening images of my mother and father predominate.

When I grew up, and became more ‘sophisticated', I began to believe that words are the most important part of life, apart from actions.  The words that I heard were mostly orders and instructions: Stand up; sit down; come here; ...

Or labels and condemnations: You little cur; you little wretch; you little faggot; god damn you to hell; I'll beat you to within an inch of your life...

Later, I concluded that actions are the most important part of life, apart from emotions.  "Actions speak louder than words.  By their deeds shall you know them..."

Now, as I approach the autumn of my life, I believe emotions are the core of human experience.  "What do you feel?  How can I comfort you?  Your feelings are important to me and should be attended to..."

Emotions are like a far distant continent to many boys, especially boys with an extreme male brain, which I think I had in the beginning of my life.  Over the years I have migrated considerably towards the centre ground, between the extreme male and the extreme female brain.

It can take decades for some males to learn to feel; to realize that they already are feeling all kinds of things - especially a lot of emotional pain - down deep below the level of conscious awareness.  Very often, this is the pain of a huge void between themselves and the people who share their physical space.  Their ‘nearest and dearest'.

I have spent years working on my ‘head', which turned out to be work on my heart.  For most of my life, I did not really know I had a heart, in the sense of a heart that did anything apart from pumping unfeeling blood around my numb body.

Recently I had a devastating insight.  If my mother had uttered one word of kindness to me - to say nothing of love - it would have transformed my life.  The lonely, painful journey I have been on would have been halved or quartered.  My entire self-concept would have been utterly transformed by just that one word of kindness.

One word.  One word.

I said this to a cousin of mine, over dinner, on my sixty-fifth birthday.  She came from a similar, rural Irish family to mine, except they were less poverty-stricken than my family.  She then told me about her experience of being ‘educated' by sadistic nuns, as a boarder in a convent school.  She said she had been permanently harmed by those nuns, and that the wound had never healed.  This caused me to look down deep into my own open wound, inflicted upon my by sadistic Catholic teachers, especially an order of teaching brothers.

Edna O'Brien had also been a boarder in a convent school, and she had sadistic teachers who made her life miserable.  Apart from one, ‘her nun', and she had a crush on that nun, which precipitated a crisis within the nun, who had a nervous breakdown.  The nun was taken away from the convent for some time, while she recovered, and when she returned, she would not even look at Edna O'Brien, who felt utterly rejected[i].

[i] O'Brien, E. (2013) Country Girl.  London: Faber and Faber.


...End of Extract: To continue reading this bonus feature, you must pay the 'access fee' - of £4.75 £3.45 GBP - for the 'What is Counselling?' page. 

To pay your fee...please go to: Resource 1 - What is Counselling, and how is it done?***


But here's a little four-page extract from Dr Byrne's analytical commentary upon this chapter:

Analytical commentary, by Dr Jim Byrne

I was originally trained as a Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapist (REBT). This system was developed by Dr Albert Ellis in New York City in the period 1953-62 originally.  Dr Ellis probably would not have approved of Daniel writing this memoir of his childhood suffering.  Indeed, he might have told Daniel: "Stop whining about your ancient childhood!"  Or: "Forget the God-awful past!"

The reason this advice is not sensible is this: Human experience becomes encoded in the mind and body of each individual, and cannot be reversed by a simple process of saying "Forget it!"  At the very least it has to be unlearned.  And in order to unlearn it, you have to first find it, and dig it up, and resurface it, and marshal your memories, and then subject them to re-thinking, and eventually to reframe them.  The value of this ‘reflective function' was explored by Mary Main and Peter Fonagy, and there is research to support the idea that the parents who are able to develop interactive story-telling about their childhood suffering are able to protect their own children from insecure attachment problems.  Those parents cure themselves, not by forgetting the past, but by processing the past.

Some of the ideas developed by Dr Ellis are helpful in promoting the reframing process - such as giving up unrealistic demands about the past; or refusing to exaggerate the degree of badness of a past experience - but the advice to ‘forget it' is not sensible, in that it does not accord with the reality of the kind of organism a human being happens to be.  We humans, as cultural beings, are constructed from cumulative, interpretive experiences, and to change distortions which occurred in the past, we have to analyze them, re-think them, and reframe them, so they look and feel different to us, in the here and now. (To ‘reframe' an event/experience means to look at it through a different frame of reference, or a different set of beliefs.  It involves challenging the way we originally framed or interpreted the event or experience).

Dr Ellis was operating with a defective model of the human body-mind; one which he took partly from his own childhood experience of having to figure out how to live as a child partly-abandoned to hospitalization for months at a time; partly from his rejection of the ideas of Karen Horney (who insisted that the roots of our emotional life lie in the actual experiences of our early childhood histories, and that we need to be loved); and partly from his attraction to behaviourism (which said food was all a child needed from mother to form a secure attachment!). Today we have a better sense of how babies are affected by stress, and how those early experiences of stress mark their adult personalities.  (See Susan Gerhardt, 2010, pages 76-77 for some relevant research results)[1].  Thanks to Dr John Bowlby, we now are more aware that the child is the father (or mother) of the man (or woman); and that active mother-love is indispensable to the sense of security of the growing infant.  (See Bowlby, 2010)[2].

Not only was Dr Ellis operating with a defective model of the human body-mind; but he was also operating with a critical/judgemental model of some clients.  He expected to meet some "love slobs" along the way - people who believed that "I must be loved and approved by all significant others all of the time" - and when he did, he had no sympathy for them, because in his view they are simply crazy; and simply upsetting themselves.  To Dr Ellis, Daniel might well look like a ‘love slob', because he clearly would like to be loved by his mother.  In CENT we take a more sympathetic view of the client, as a biological organism with needs and wants, who may have been damaged by not having ‘good enough' mothers and fathers (as argued by Dr John Bowlby)[3].  We also take the view that love is a human need.  It is not as critical as oxygen, in the sense that, if you do not get oxygen you will die quickly, but if you do not get love, you will (wither and) die slowly.


...End of Extract:

To continue reading this bonus feature, you must pay the 'access fee' - of £4.75 £3.45 GBP - for the 'What is Counselling?' page. 

To pay your fee...please go to: Resource 1 - What is Counselling, and how is it done?***


[1] Gerhardt, S. (2010) Why Love Matters: How affection shapes a baby's brain.  London: Routledge.

[2] Bowlby, J. (2010a) The Making and Breaking of Affectional Bonds.  London: Routledge Classics.

[3] Bowlby, J. (2010b) A Secure Base.  London: Routledge Classics.

[4] Pennebaker, J.W. (1997) Writing about emotional experiences as a therapeutic process.  Psychological Science, 8(3):  162.

[5] Francis, M.E. and Pennebaker, J.W. (1992) Putting stress into words: the impact of writing on physiological, absentee, and self-reported emotional well-being measures.  American Journal of Health Promotion, 6(4):  280-287.

[6] Pennebaker, J.W. (1997) Writing about emotional experiences as a therapeutic process.  Psychological Science, 8(3):  162.                                                                                                                 

[7] Byrne, J.W. (2011) What is the CENT approach to Narrative Therapy?  CENT Paper No.16.  Hebden Bridge: The Institute for CENT. Available online: http://www.abc-counselling.com/id367.html

[8] Gray, Jeffrey (1971) The Psychology of Fear and Stress. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. 


...End of Extract: To continue reading this bonus feature, you must pay the 'access fee' - of £4.75 £3.45 GBP - for the 'What is Counselling?' page. 

To pay your fee...please go to: Resource 1 - What is Counselling, and how is it done?***


*Bonus feature*: Sixteen videos on counselling: exploring a range of counselling models...

In addition to all of the bonus features outlined above, you will also gain access to Resource 4 - Sixteen videos on counselling: exploring a range of counselling models, when you pay your access fee for Resource 1 - What is counselling, and how is it done?

In this 5,000-word resource, we include at least sixteen videos on counselling and therapy, of which eight illustrate counselling and therapy encounters between a practitioner and a client (mainly role played).  Eight are by Dr Jim Byrne.

The subjects covered in these video clips include: What you can gain from Cognitive Emotive Narrative Therapy (or CENT counselling); Narrative counselling for anxiety; What is counselling?  What is CENT counselling?  The benefits of CBT counselling; Cognitive therapy role play; Cognitive behaviour therapy role play; Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) role play; REBT with Albert Ellis; Psychodynamic counselling role play; A 21st century view of Freud and his theories; Narrative counselling role play; Gestalt therapy role play; Some comments on TA counselling; Counselling models used in CENT (3 videos); and: REBT and empathy.

There are also five recommended books, with reviews; and completed academic assignments on counselling issues.  Some of the academic assignments were submitted to Rusland College in 2002-2003 and achieved Grade A passes.  The subjects include: Assignment 1 on Creating counselling and therapy approaches; Freud's psychoanalysis; and: Jung's analytic therapy;  Assignment on Cognitive Therapy; Assignment 6 on REBT; Assignment 1 on Freud and Jung; Question and answer mini-paper on Freud's psychoanalysis; Question and answer mini-paper on Cognitive therapy.

To gain access to this resource:

1. You need to click the yellow-highlighted link below, which will take you to ClickBank (a secure server which we have used for thousands of transactions over a twelve year period without a single problem).

2. You can pay with your credit/debit card, or with your PayPal account.

I hope you find this very popular and highly valued resource helpful.

Pay Now: To purchase access to this resource (including the *Bonus Features* listed on this page), please click this link now: Resource 1 - What is Counselling, and how is it done?***




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