ABC Coaching & Counselling Services, Hebden Bridge, West Yorkshire; and by telephone, email & Skype

This site  The Web 

ABC Coaching and Counselling Services offers professional counselling, psychotherapy and coaching services, in Hebden Bridge, West Yorkshire; and by telephone, email and Skype/webcam all over the world.

Plus some CPD courses and learning resources for counselling students; postgraduate students; qualified counsellors; and self-help enthusiasts.

The ABC services are based upon the theory and practice of Cognitive Emotive Narrative Therapy (CENT) - which incorporates CBT/REBT, depth psychology and humanistic (client centred) approaches.  More specifically, we integrate REBT/CBT, Transactional Analysis (TA), Narrative Therapy, Attachment Theory, Object Relations, Zen Buddhism and Moral Philosophy.


Coaching, counselling and psychotherapy in Hebden Bridge, West Yorkshire, HX7 8HJ, UK

Telephone counselling and Skypewebcam counselling all over the English speaking world.

Email counselling for individuals with good English writing skills, who are not seriously emotionally disturbed.

Academic coaching for counselling and psychotherapy students.


Overview of site content: Counselling and coaching services; and counselling and coaching training courses and informational resources; including video format. Face to face coaching and counselling services; telephone counselling; email counselling; skype counselling; performance coaching; psychotherapy; couples therapy; books on counselling, and on anxiety, anger management, stress management, and happiness. Confidence counselling and coaching: Assertiveness; self confidence; self acceptance. Happiness coaching and positive psychology. Counselling research; and counselling supervision. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT); Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT); Cognitive emotive narrative therapy (CENT); Transactional analysis (TA); Object relations and attachment theory; Zen Buddhism and moral philosophy.  Training for counsellors; Articles and papers on CENT counselling.  Counselling diploma assignments.  Copy of counsellor's doctoral thesis.  The institute for CENT (cognitive emotive narrative therapy). Pages on attachment theory, meditation, narrative therapy, writing therapy, anger, anxiety, depression, stress, stoic philosophy for counsellors, and much more besides.



Hello, and welcome to

ABC Coaching and Counselling Services

 Established 1998

Helping individuals to grow and thrive


Counselling and Coaching for you: Trust us to solve your problems!

Are you looking for counselling, coaching or psychotherapy help with difficult problems, at home or at work?  If so, we can help!

We provide high quality help in the form of face-to-face counselling, psychotherapy and coaching - in Hebden Bridge, West Yorkshire - and by telephone or email counselling all over the world.

We can help you to solve your problems and improve the quality of your life!

In addition to professional counselling and coaching services, we also offer some books, information packs and training courses in counselling and related subjects; as well as the ABC Counselling Members' Club.

"A single conversation across the table with a wise person is worth a month's study of books".   

Chinese Proverb


 Together we can rewrite the story you're living!


Coaching and Counselling Quote No.1: Philosophy of counselling:

Counselling can help us to change our lives for the better, but we often resist any form of change.  According to one psychoanalyst: “We (normally) resist change.  Committing ourselves to a small change, even one that is unmistakably in our best interest, is often more frightening than ignoring a dangerous situation.  We are vehemently faithful to our own view of the world, our story.  We want to know what new story we are stepping into before we exit the old one.  We don’t want an exit if we don’t know exactly where it is going to take us, even – or perhaps especially – in an emergency…”

Stephen Grosz (2014), The Examined Life: How we lose and find ourselves. Page 123. (-1c)


“What characterizes mental health (or emotional well-being – JWB) is ... how quickly we can deal with each #crisis so we can get on to the next one”.  M. Scott Peck



Counselling and coaching work:

The solution to your problem is here! 


Our services are organized into six divisions, as follows:


Dr Jim Byrne FISPC



*Distance Learning Courses 

Counselling-related CPD


We offer a range of counselling, coaching and psychotherapy services - in Hebden Bridge, West Yorkshire - and all over the world via the telephone, email and computer-aids.

Our services are based upon the theory and practice of Cognitive Emotive Narrative Therapy (CENT) - which incorporates CBT counseling, depth psychology and humanistic (client centred) approaches to counselling, coaching and therapy.


Counselling and Coaching Quotation No.2: Philosophy of counselling:

Counselling clients may often feel split, and in mental turmoil, with little idea of how to proceed.  They are caught in an inner battle which was originally analysed and explained by Dr Sigmund Freud: “(Sigmund Freud) demonstrates how the battle between instinctual urges and the inhibiting external world, a battle that begins in childhood, changes its character with the progressive building up of the psychic personality.  He divides the latter into an instinctual unconscious id (or ‘it/thing’ – JWB), a rationally oriented ego (or sense of self – JWB), and an ethical-moral, critical agency, the super-ego (or ‘over-I’ – JWB), which develops on the basis of identifications (with mother, father, teachers, etc. – JWB).  The circumstance that each of these inner agencies pursues its own goals leads to the insight into the dynamic aspect of mental life … (or why we experience) … psychic conflict”. 

Anna Freud (2005) The Essentials of Psycho-Analysis. Page 3. (-1a(ii))


“Hope is like a road in the country; there was never a road, but when many people walk on it, the road comes into existence”.  Lyn Yutang




For counselling and coaching help, or for further information, please contact us today,

on 01422 843 629 (from inside the UK); or:

44 1422 843 629 (outside the UK)


Or email; or


If you are looking for the extensive (50-pages of) textual-visual resources that used to be on the bottom of this homepage, they have been incorporated into the new ABC Counselling Members' Club. To access that material, it is now necessary to join the members club.


If you like the content of this site, please share it with your social networking friends (e.g. at Facebook, Bebo, Twitter, Google+, LinkedIn, etc).

Bookmark and Share 


The ABC Counselling Members’ Club


We are pleased to offer you exclusive membership of the newly formed ABC Counselling Members’ Club, for a modest monthly fee.

Membership of this club entitles you to:

1. Unlimited access to a range of more than 20 self-help and self-study resource pages, covering subjects from ‘What is counselling?’ through ‘What is TA?’ and ‘What is REBT?’, to expert inputs on how to control anger, anxiety and depression; and many others;

2. A monthly Club Newsletter, containing valuable information and advice on various aspects of the field of counselling, psychology, psychotherapy, and self-help;

3. A monthly video presentation, by Dr Jim Byrne, on his latest thoughts, his writing, and his theories.  (These videos will never appear on YouTube – and are exclusively available to ABC Club members).

These informational pages, or packs, have been developed over a number of years through the research work of Dr Jim Byrne – and revised and updated recently - as an expression of his commitment to exploring the philosophy of psychotherapy, and to developing new and creative approaches to the integration of different systems of counselling and therapy.

For further information about this offering, please go to The ABC Counselling Members Club page.***


 ClickBank is the retailer of products on this site. CLICKBANK® is a registered trademark of Click Sales, Inc., a Delaware corporation located at 917 S. Lusk Street, Suite 200, Boise Idaho, 83706, USA and used by permission. ClickBank's role as retailer does not constitute an endorsement, approval or review of these products or any claim, statement or opinion used in promotion of these products.


Return of the Counselling Blog...

by Dr Jim Byrne, Copyright (c) Jim Byrne, 2013 


I decided to restore this counselling and psychotherapy blog after thinking about the need for a direct line of communication with the readers of this website. 

I had stopped producing my blog because it took up so much of my time every week.

So, in future, it will be briefer, and leaner, and have less emphasis on visual images.

Today I have been thinking about ‘wisdom'.  What is it, and how can be it sought?  Can it be achieved?

It seems to me that we live in times of low or non-existent wisdom, as more and more individuals chase the god of money and material ‘success'.  Alcoholism and drug abuse are at all time highs, as are relationship disintegration and reports of emotional misery.


Here's a little video log that I made this morning, on the philosophy of counselling and psychotherapy.  I think it contains some useful ideas for counsellors, psychologists and psychotherapists everywhere:

To watch this video, please click THIS LINK, or 

click the screen that follows:



The Stoics taught that we should not seek fame or fortune, because those things were beyond our control.  They would argue that we should seek to be good people, good citizens, good neighbours, good family members, and that we might reap some reward from those good efforts.  However, we are transitory beings, in a world of inevitable suffering.  Therefore, we should expect frustration and difficulty.


For more, click this link for Jim's Counselling Blog.***


Cognitive Emotive Narrative Therapy - Articles and papers

Jim-in-Harrogate-001.jpgFree Papers on Cognitive Emotive Narrative Therapy (CENT)

There are now 27 papers on various aspects of the theory and practice of Cognitive Emotive Narrative Therapy (CENT) available on this page.

This includes 9 papers on REBT (Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy), under the heading "The REBT birth-mark on the embryo of CENT"*** click here...

Updated: 7th July 2014: 

CENT Paper No.25 was recently added... On the subject of good and evil...

We are currently working on CENT Paper No.26, which is a review of models of mind by major theorists from Plato, through Freud, Jung, Adler, and the behaviourists, cognitive behaviourists, object relations and attachment theory, and on and on...  Watch this space; or go to for a preview... 


The Foundations of Cognitive Emotive Narrative Therapy (CENT) 

The main papers which laid the foundation for the development of Cognitive Emotive Narrative Therapy (CENT) were as follows:

Byrne, J. (2009/2012) What is cognitive emotive narrative therapy (CENT)?  CENT Paper No.2(a).  Updated May 2012.  Hebden Bridge: The Institute for CENT.  Brief extractCENT is defined in terms of the models of therapy used.  The CENT message to clients is this: "We deal with your emotions. We look at the connection between your thinking and your emotions; your experience and your emotions; your meanings and your emotions; your emotions and behaviours; and the stories within which you live your life. We encourage you to change your self talk; your habitual behaviours; and to work on your bodily health and the story of your life. We try to provide the best possible analysis of the potential reasons, in the basement of your mind, for your current dysfunctional thoughts-feelings-behaviours. We aim to provide a 'secure base' for you within the therapeutic relationship."  This descriptive introduction will be helpful for clients and professionals. (The June 2012 update arose out of a decision to return to the use of the Stimulus>Organism>Response model).  Pages: 7.  Available online: What is CENT counselling?***

Byrne, J. (2009) An introduction to the 'Windows Model' of CENT.  CENT Paper No.3. Hebden Bridge: The Institute for CENT. Brief extract: The Windows Model is the core model of Cognitive Emotive Narrative Therapy (CENT).  It is predicated on ‘frame theory', which suggests that all of our perceptions are interpretative, and that our interpretations are driven by non-conscious, habit-based ‘framings' of incoming stimuli, through our senses.  The ‘frames' that we use to interpret incoming stimuli are nested sets of inferences, which are derived from past experience.  Depending upon the negativity or positivity of the frame through which you are perceiving an incoming stimulus, you will produce a correspondingly negative or positive emotional/behavioural response.  Pages: 16. Available online: The Six Windows Model of CENT counselling***

Byrne, J. (2009) The "Individual" and his/her Social Relationships - The CENTPerspective.  CENT Paper No.9.  Hebden Bridge: The Institute for CENT.  Brief extract:  This paper begins with a recapitulation of the author’s approach to rethinking the model of the human individual implicit in Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy, using some of the core concepts of Freudianism to provide a structure.  Next, the text returns to Freud’s writings to review some of those concepts, and in particular to challenge Feud’s view of human sexuality.  The result is a more general view of power relations between children and parents, and emotional difficulties arising out of those conflicts, rather than through psychosexual stages of development.  The text then reviews the theory and perspective of the Object Relations school of psychology/psychotherapy.  This psychodynamic orientation sees relationship as being central to what life is about.  It is not an optional extra.  Human babies are ‘born to relate’.  Relationship is integral to the survival urges and survival strategies of humans.  Pages: 48. Available online: The roots of the 'individual' are social and relational*** 

For more, please go to the CENT Articles and Papers page.***


Here are some video clips to help you to get a flavour of the ABC Coaching and Counselling Services approach to counselling and therapy:

1. This first clip is a brief introduction to Dr Jim Byrne, ABC Coaching and Counselling Services, and the counselling services on offer.2. In this second clip, I describe the importance of taking responsibility for your own life, as the essential foundation for any form of successful counselling process.


3. Here is a brief introduction to Cognitive Emotive Narrative Therapy (CENT), which is the form of counselling and therapy created and used by Dr Jim Byrne.  There are at least 16 videos on the 16 Counselling Videos page.4. This is Part 2 of 'What is Counselling?'  It was produced by me to update my statements about the way I think of counselling.  In particular, I mention the importance of Attachment Theory, and the counsellor being emotionally available to the client.


Coaching and counselling quote No.3: Philosophy of counselling: 

Counsellors and their clients need to be aware that we humans are delusional beings, who cannot see ourselves objectively: “What people say about themselves can … be very confusing, for the simple reason that most of us aren’t very objective about ourselves.  That’s why, when we measure personality, we don’t just ask people point-blank what they think they are like.  We give them a questionnaire, like the Big Five Inventory, carefully designed to elicit telling responses.  That is also why (Prof. John) Gottman doesn’t waste time asking husbands and wives point-blank questions about the state of their marriage.  They might lie or feel awkward or, more important, they might not know the truth”.

Malcolm Gladwell: Blink: The power of thinking without thinking.  (1bii)


“A counselling client may be overburdened by pressures at home and at work, and they need to learn how to increase their coping capability”.  Dr Jim Byrne




Featured web pages:

Because this web site has more than 300 pages on counselling and coaching related topics, we have decided to have occasional displays of six featured web pages. Here's the first one:

Couples Therapy and Marriage GuidanceCounselling and Therapy in Hebden Bridge HX7 8HJ, West YorkshireHow Can Counselling Help?
The coaching services offered by Renata Taylor-Byrne   What is Cognitive Emotive Narrative Therapy (CENT)? The Institute for CENT counselling and therapy  


This will hopefully help visitors to find previously concealed material


Models of mind for counsellors and psychotherapists 

On the fundamental splits and compartments in the human mind

By Dr Jim Byrne, Copyright (c) Jim Byrne, April 2014


Plato’s Tripartite Model of Mind


Plato’s tripartite model of the mind, or soul, is essentially quite simple.  He sees the mind as being split between competing powers, like a charioteer striving to control two conflicted horses. The charioteer is the reasoning faculty in the individual.  The more materialistic ‘horse’ is an expression of our most basic appetites, or our appetitive self.  The third element is a bit more complex.

In two of Plato’s dialogues, in which he features Socrates engaging in conversations with interested others, Plato mentions a model of the human ‘soul’ (or mind).  In this model, the mind is assumed to be split three ways; and is normally referred to as a ‘she’.  In the introduction to the Phaedrus dialogue, Plato writes:

“The soul is immortal, for she is the course of all motion both in herself and in others.  Of her true and divine form it would (take) long to tell, but she may be described in a figure as a composite being made up of a charioteer and a pair of winged steeds.  The steeds of the gods are immortal, but ours are one mortal and the other immortal…” Page 765 Plato (1999)[1].

On page 767, Plato is involved in an argument about whether a non-lover is better than a lover – where ‘lover’ means an older man lusting after a younger man (or boy). He begins by distinguishing between lovers on the basis that their approach to seeking love will be determined by the god that they follow:

“The manner in which they take love is as follows:

“I told you about the charioteer and two steeds, the one a noble animal who is guided by word and admonition only, the other an ill-looking villain who will hardly yield to blow or spur.  Together all three, who are a figure of the soul, approach the vision of love.  And now a conflict begins.  The ill-conditioner steed rushes on to enjoy, but the charioteer, who beholds the beloved with awe, falls back in adoration”.

Plato’s story is long and involved, but, reading between the lines, and reading from several sources, over a number of years, I have reduced his story of the horses and the charioteer to a simple formula.  This is how it goes: Imagine a charioteer (Reason) who has two horses as his sources of pulling power, and they often wish to pull in conflicting directions. The function of the charioteer is to control and regulate the two horses.  The first horse (Spirit or wilfulness) is represented as being black (and sometimes as a tiny image of a lion); and the second horse (Appetite or desire) is represented as being white (and sometimes as a tiny beast).  The charioteer (Reason – represented by a tiny human form) is assumed to have the best chance of being in control if s/he can form an alliance with spirit/will against appetite. (Plato 1999; and Plato 2007)[2].


From Plato to the ABC Model:

Models of Mind for Counsellors and Psychotherapists - Part 1

A video presentation by Dr Jim Byrne, Doctor of Counselling 

Dr Jim Byrne explains his rationale for working on Models of Mind.  He has found it necessary to explore these models in order to better understand the mind of the counselling client, especially those who come to him for help.  He also talks about some of the weaknesses and errors in some existing models of mind - including the idea of the "core of goodness"; and the way the ABC model leaves out of account the body of the client; their diet; physical exercise; and so on.  He talks about Freud's models, especially the Eros and Thanatos model; and Plato's tripartite model which uses the metaphor of a charioteer and two horses to describe the mind's 'agencies'.  Dr Byrne relates many of these ideas back to the theories of Dr Albert Ellis.

To view this video clip, please click on the screen image below:


Or Click on this link.***

For information on CENT papers, please go to:

For information about Dr Jim Byrne, please go to  and/or


For more on Plato, please click this link for New Writing on CENT Counselling.***


CENT Paper No.2 (a):

What is Cognitive Emotive Narrative Therapy (CENT)?

By Dr Jim Byrne

Copyright (c) 2009-2013/2014, Jim Byrne

(Updated 2012; 2013; and April 2014)

1. Introduction

"CENT sees humans as essentially story tellers, to ourselves and others, and storytellers who live in a world of narratives and scripts, which include reasonable and unreasonable elements, logical and illogical elements, and defensible and indefensible elements.  Humans often tend to push away (or repress) unpleasant experiences, to fail to process them, and to then become the (unconscious) victims of those repressed, undigested experiences.  CENT also sees adult relationships as being the acting out of childhood experiences with parents and siblings, because some part of those earlier relationships have not been properly digested and completed".  Extract from CENT Counselling: How to apply Cognitive Emotive Narrative Therapy in counselling and self-help, By Dr Jim Byrne.***

Cognitive Emotive Narrative Therapy (CENT) is a system of counselling and psychotherapy which helps clients to work on their brain-mind-body-and-relationships in order to reduce and control negative or painful emotions and behaviours, like anger, anxiety, depression, stress, self confidence and couple conflict.

DrJim_in-Scarboro_2010c.jpgCENT integrates Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT), Transactional Analysis (TA), Attachment theory, Zen Buddhist philosophy, moral philosophy, and some other cognitive, narrative and dynamic therapies. And CENT goes beyond those systems, to create some original cognitive-emotive techniques, models and perspectives.

CENT is not an eclectic system which has merely bolted elements of different counselling systems together.  It is a truly integrative system which began by revisiting the basic model of the human personality developed by Sigmund Freud and asking: How does this model link up with the ABC model?  What are the necessary implications of assuming that there is substantial truth in both models?  The same process was conducted with Transactional Analysis and cognitive science.  The resulting model was then compared with the implications of the Object Relations School.  Moral philosophy and Zen Buddhism were also interrogated in this process of model building.  That work of model building is described in Papers No.1(a)[1] and No.9[2].


In CENT counselling, we define ‘feeling’ as innate, and ‘emotion’ as a socio-cultural product of experience: “The terms ‘feeling’ and ‘emotion’, and ‘affect’ are used in many different senses in psychology.  A review of more than twenty theories of emotion reveals a plethora of widely diverging technical definitions.  These vary with the technique of investigation, the general theoretical framework, and the value-judgements of the psychologist.  Often, they are so diverse as to defy comparison let alone synthesis”.  Therefore, in CENT, we follow Sarbin in defining feeling as innate, and emotion as ‘narrative emplotment’ arising out of cumulative, interpretive, social experience.  Because emotion is narrativized, it can be changed in a therapeutic conversation.

Robert F. Hobson, Forms of Feeling: The heart of psychotherapy, Page 88. (10)


Before that system of integration of models was begun, I had studied thirteen different systems of counselling and therapy, including: Freud and Jung, Rogers and Perles, Behaviour Therapy theory and practice, Cognitive Therapy and Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy, Reality Therapy and Transactional Analysis, Existential Therapy and Logotherapy, Multimodal Therapy and Cognitive-Humanistic Therapy; and also committed myself to the proposition that all systems of counselling and therapy that are designed to be therapeutic are broadly equivalent in terms of the outcomes achieved for the client, as argued by Wampold (2001)[3], and Messer and Wampold (2000)[4].

CENT evolved in phases.  1968 to 1980 was a kind of incubation of some core ideas, triggered by a partial Freudian analysis, combined with art therapy, music therapy, relaxation therapy, group therapy, and some others.  And 1980 to 1998 involved active exploration of various systems of therapy and self development (including Gestalt and Psychosynthesis, and autogenic training).  Then, 1999 to 2007 saw an intensification of thinking and learning about the core elements of the thirteen systems mentioned above.  And finally, over the past six year period - of developing and applying the emerging CENT model - a basic theory of human personality and psychological disturbance emerged.

For a brief video input, click the screen below, or click this link.*** 


Viewer Comments:

1. "This is absolutely excellent!!! I would like to learn (this system) or read a book about this model". - Taski, via YouTube. 28th December 2011

2. "This dude's amazing (and I) totally love his work". - PsychologyLover93

3.  "Wow, Dr, Jim...  Maybe you'll finally be the one to create a unified theory of psychology, or at least progress the development of one. That's what the field needs". - Fritz - By Dr Fritz Hershey - Psychologists in Private Practice - LinkedIn, 4th March 2014


This is the best book to begin to read on the foundations of CENT, and how it is applied in practice:


Cover.77.jpgCENT e-book No.2: CENT Counselling: How to apply Cognitive Emotive Narrative Therapy in Counselling and Self-help, by Dr Jim Byrne

This is a popular introduction to the theory and practice of Cognitive Emotive Narrative Therapy (CENT), which is a highly effective new philosophy of life, and psychological system of therapy.

This book was designed to answer the most common questions asked by counsellors, psychologists, psychotherapists, counselling and therapy students, counselling and therapy clients, and self-help enthusiasts, about the nature of CENT: how to learn it; and how to apply it in practice, to individual counselling, couple's therapy, and self management.

The main aim is to demonstrate CENT counselling in practice; and in the process you will learn something about how to integrate and apply CBT/REBT, Transactional Analysis (TA), Attachment Theory, Object Relations and Zen philosophy and Moral philosophy.

For further information on this bookplease click here.


 To continue reading about CENT counselling, please click the following link for What is CENT? 


Resource 11 - How to control your anger...

by Dr Jim Byrne

A holistic approach to anger management self-help, which is quick and simple 

Copyright (c) Jim Byrne at ABC Coaching Publications, 2009-2013. All rights reserved.




I’m Doctor Jim Byrne.  I’m a Doctor of Counselling, with more than 15 years’ experience of helping people with all kinds of emotional problems – including problems with anger management and the control of inappropriate aggressive urges.

I established my expertise in anger management by studying the literature of the field, and also by helping hundreds of individuals to become much less angry, and much better communicators.

Now I want to help you!


Welcome to the Anger Management self-help page

# Are you suffering from a lack of control over your anger?

# Do you 'explode' or 'implode' - damaging your relationships and/or your happiness?

# Have you damaged your relationships at home or at work?

# Or are you simply feeling pretty miserable much of the time, because of sulky anger?

If you are determined to control your anger, and you can see that it costs you more than you gain from allowing yourself to act angrily, then I can help you. 

In this self-help resource pack, you will find a number of insights into the nature of anger, so you can understand your anger better; a number of techniques to control and reduce your anger; and a few video clips which clarify some of the key points for you.


Here's a little  video clip on How to control your anger, which you can download to your computer and watch it there:


 To download this video, please click the screen image above, or CLICK THIS LINK.***


My approach to anger management is a fusion of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT/CBT), Transactional Analysis (TA), Attachment Theory, Zen Buddhism, and a number of other therapies and philosophies which work particularly well together.  I have integrated all these systems into a new system of therapy which I call Cognitive Emotive Narrative Therapy (CENT).


For more, please go to How to control your anger.***



Copyright © Dr Jim Byrne, 2009 (Updated 14th October 2010 - Reposted on 28th April 2014)

1. Introduction

We do not see with our eyes so much as with our brains.  Eyes are part of the machinery of perception, but the decisions about ‘what it is' that we see are not made by our eyes.  Those decisions are made by our ‘stored experiences' driving our ‘judgements'.  We do not see ‘external events' so much with our eyes then as we see them through ‘frames of reference and interpretation' which were created in the past, and which we now implement as habit-based stimulus-response pairings.  Or we could call these responses ‘pattern matching' processes.  "I've seen this stimulus (or ‘external event') before.  This (particular interpretation) is the sense I made of it last time.  So that is how I will relate to it this time".

The Windows Model is the core model of Cognitive Emotive Narrative Therapy (CENT).  It is predicated on ‘frame theory', which suggests that all of our perceptions are interpretative, and that our interpretations are driven by habit-based ‘framings' of incoming stimuli, through our senses.  The ‘frames' that we use to interpret incoming stimuli are nested sets of inferences, which are derived from past experience.  Depending upon the negativity or positivity of the frame through which you are perceiving an incoming stimulus, you will produce a correspondingly negative or positive emotional/behavioural response. Here is a brief introduction to this concept in the form of an animated video clip:


 This video clip can be viewed at YouTube using the following link:

Introduction to the Six Windows Model of CENT Counselling 

These insights underpin the EFR model of CENT, as follows:

E = Event or Experience.

F = Framing (of this event or experience), based on past experience.

R = Response (being emotional and behavioural).

To change undesirable responses (Rs), we need to change the way we frame (F) our experiences (Es).

I developed this model over a period of three or so years, beginning with a Four Windows model, and gradually expanding it to Six Windows.  (More recently, while working on a new book on Anger Management, I have expanded the system, so there are now three sets of windows: The Brown Windows, which will be reivewed below; the Blue Windows and the Red Windows, which will be described in my Anger Management book in due course).

...For more, click the following link to go to The Six Windows Model of CENT Counselling.***